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As the rules change or new procedures are developed, please note that these interpretation and/or guidance may not apply; you should always refer to the latest rules and guidance documents to determine what equipment authorization procedures should be followed. For the latest guidance on specific topics or you don't know where to start, please feel free to contact GTG Group experts.

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Power adapters, also known as chargers or power bricks, are essential components used in most electronic devices such as laptops, mobile phones, and tablets. They convert high voltage AC power to low voltage DC power, which is used to power these devices. With the increasing demand for electronic devices, the need for safe and reliable power adapters has become critical. This has led to the development of power adapter tests and certification standards to ensure that the adapters meet the required safety and performance standards.

Types of power adapters

There are two types of power adapters, namely regulated and unregulated. Regulated adapters have a voltage regulator that maintains a constant output voltage regardless of the input voltage, while unregulated adapters do not have voltage regulators and the output voltage depends on the input voltage. Regulated adapters are more expensive but offer better performance and are suitable for sensitive electronic devices.

How can GTG assist you with the tests on power adapter?

Power adapter tests are conducted to evaluate the safety and performance of the adapter. The tests are conducted in accordance with the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Underwriters Laboratories (UL).

GTG Group conducts various tests, including electrical safety, energy efficiency, and EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility). Electrical safety tests ensure that the adapter is safe to use and does not cause any harm to the user. Energy efficiency tests verify that the adapter is energy-efficient and does not waste energy. EMC tests ensure that the adapter does not interfere with other electronic devices.

As GTG Group’s strategy updates, some of the below listed test items may no longer be available, please contact us for the latest information.

(1) Electrical safety test

The electrical safety test is one of the most important tests that power adapters undergo. This test aims to ensure that the adapter is not a safety hazard, and it complies with international safety standards. During the test, the adapter is subjected to different electrical conditions, including over voltage, over current, and short circuit. The test is done to ensure that the adapter can withstand these conditions without posing a risk to the user.

Power Adapter Testing Facilities
  • Dielectric withstanding voltage test: this test is performed to determine the insulation level of the adapter. The test involves applying a high voltage to the adapter and measuring the current that flows through it. If the adapter passes this test, it means that it can withstand high voltage and does not have any insulation issues.
  • Earth ground resistance test: this test is performed to determine the quality of the ground connection in the adapter. The test involves measuring the resistance between the ground pin of the adapter and the ground. If the resistance is low, it means that the ground connection is good, and the adapter is safe to use.
  • Leakage current test: this test is performed to determine the amount of current that leaks from the adapter to the ground. The test involves measuring the current that flows through a device when it is connected to the adapter. If the current is low, it means that the adapter is safe to use.
  • High voltage insulation resistance test: this test is performed to determine the insulation resistance of the adapter. The test involves applying a high voltage to the adapter and measuring the insulation resistance. If the insulation resistance is high, it means that the adapter is safe to use.
  • Ground continuity test: this test is performed to determine the continuity of the ground connection in the adapter. The test involves measuring the resistance between the ground pin of the adapter and the ground. If the resistance is low, it means that the ground connection is good, and the adapter is safe to use.
  • Overload test: this test is performed to determine the overload capacity of the adapter. The test involves applying a load that is higher than the maximum rated load of the adapter. If the adapter can handle the overload without any issues, it means that it is safe to use.
  • Short circuit test: this test is performed to determine the short circuit capacity of the adapter. The test involves applying a short circuit to the adapter and measuring the current that flows through it. If the adapter can handle the short circuit without any issues, it means that it is safe to use.
  • Voltage drop test: the voltage drop test is done to determine the voltage drop across the adapter. During the test, the adapter is subjected to different loads to determine the voltage drop. The test is done to ensure that the adapter can provide a stable voltage output even when subjected to different loads.
  • Ripple test: the ripple test is done to determine the quality of the DC output of the adapter. During the test, the adapter is subjected to different loads to determine the ripple voltage of the DC output. The test is done to ensure that the adapter produces a clean and stable DC output.
  • Power-on test: the power-on test is done to ensure that the adapter can power the electronic device it is designed for. During the test, the adapter is connected to the electronic device, and the device is powered on to ensure that it works correctly.

(2) EMC test

The EMC test is done to ensure that the adapter does not interfere with other electronic devices. During the test, the adapter is subjected to different electromagnetic conditions to ensure that it does not produce unwanted electromagnetic radiation that can interfere with other electronic devices.

  • Conducted emissions test: this test measures the amount of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that the power adapter emits through its power cord. The test is conducted by injecting a current into the power cord and measuring the resulting electromagnetic emissions.
  • Radiated emissions test: this test measures the amount of EMI that the power adapter emits through the air. The test is conducted by placing the power adapter in an anechoic chamber and measuring the electromagnetic field strength at various distances.
  • Immunity test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand electromagnetic interference from external sources. The test is conducted by exposing the power adapter to various electromagnetic fields and measuring its response.
  • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand electrostatic discharges. The test is conducted by applying a voltage spike to the power adapter and measuring its response.
  • Surge test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand power surges. The test is conducted by applying a high voltage spike to the power adapter and measuring its response.
  • Power frequency magnetic field test: this test measures the amount of magnetic field emitted by the power adapter at power frequency. The test is conducted by placing the power adapter in a magnetic field and measuring the resulting field strength.
  • Voltage dip and interruption test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand voltage dips and interruptions. The test is conducted by applying a voltage dip or interruption to the power adapter and measuring its response.
  • Harmonics and flicker test: this test measures the amount of harmonic distortion and flicker caused by the power adapter. The test is conducted by measuring the waveform of the power adapter’s output voltage and current.
  • Conducted susceptibility test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand conducted interference from external sources. The test is conducted by injecting a current into the power adapter and measuring its response.
  • Radiated susceptibility test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand radiated interference from external sources. The test is conducted by exposing the power adapter to various electromagnetic fields and measuring its response.
  • Electrostatic discharge immunity test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand electrostatic discharges from external sources. The test is conducted by applying a voltage spike to the power adapter and measuring its response.
  • Power frequency magnetic field immunity test: this test measures the ability of the power adapter to withstand magnetic fields at power frequency from external sources. The test is conducted by exposing the power adapter to a magnetic field and measuring its response.

(3) Energy efficiency test

Energy efficiency testing for power adapters is crucial to ensure they consume minimal energy and minimize waste. The first thing to understand is that there are specific efficiency standards that power adapters must meet in order to be considered energy efficient. In the United States, these standards are set by the Department of Energy and are known as Level VI efficiency standards. These standards dictate the maximum amount of energy that can be used by a power adapter when it is not in use or when it is plugged in but not charging a device. Here are some common energy efficiency tests that power adapters may undergo:

  • The “No-Load” test: this test is designed to measure the amount of power that a power adapter uses when it is plugged in but not connected to a device. The power adapter is tested with no load, and the amount of power that it uses is measured.
  • The “10% Load” test: this test is designed to measure the efficiency of a power adapter when it is charging a device that is drawing 10% of its maximum power. The efficiency of the power adapter is calculated by measuring the amount of power that is delivered to the device compared to the amount of power that is drawn from the wall.
  • The “Average Efficiency” test: this test is designed to measure the efficiency of a power adapter over a range of loads. The power adapter is tested at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of its maximum load. The efficiency of the power adapter is calculated for each load and then averaged to give an overall efficiency rating.
  • Power factor test: power factor is a measure of how efficiently a power adapter converts AC power to DC power. Energy-efficient power adapters have a high power factor, indicating that they convert energy more efficiently than inefficient ones.
  • Temperature rise test: temperature rise is the increase in temperature of a power adapter during operation. This test assesses the temperature increase of the adapter during operation. It helps identify any potential overheating issues that could affect energy efficiency and safety. Energy-efficient power adapters have lower temperature rise than inefficient ones, indicating that they waste less energy as heat.

(4) Mechanical tests

To guarantee quality and safety, all power adapters must undergo mechanical testing before they hit the market.

  • Mechanical shock test: the mechanical shock test is used to determine the ability of a power adapter to withstand sudden impacts that may occur during transportation or handling. The adapter is subjected to a series of shocks from different directions, and its functionality is tested to ensure it can still operate efficiently.
  • Vibration test: the vibration test checks the ability of a power adapter to withstand vibrations that may occur during transportation. The adapter is placed on a vibration table and subjected to different frequencies and amplitudes of vibration. The test ensures that the adapter can still operate efficiently under such conditions.
  • Drop test: the drop test is used to determine the ability of a power adapter to withstand accidental drops from different heights. The adapter is dropped from different heights onto different surfaces, and its functionality is tested to ensure it can still operate efficiently.

(5) Environmental tests

Environmental tests are necessary for power adapters because they help to identify any potential hazards that may arise from the use of these devices.

  • Temperature test: the temperature test checks the ability of a power adapter to withstand extreme temperatures. The adapter is subjected to both high and low temperatures, and its functionality is tested to ensure it can still operate efficiently.
  • Humidity test: the humidity test checks the ability of a power adapter to withstand humid conditions. The adapter is subjected to high humidity levels, and its functionality is tested to ensure it can still operate efficiently.
  • Salt spray test: the salt spray test is used to determine the ability of a power adapter to withstand corrosive environments. The adapter is subjected to a salt spray, and its functionality is tested to ensure it can still operate efficiently.
  • Fire resistance test: the test ensures that the power adapter is resistant to fire. It checks for the adapter’s ability to withstand exposure to fire without causing damage to the device or the environment.
  • IP rating test: the IP rating test checks the ability of a power adapter to withstand dust and water ingress. The adapter is subjected to dust and water, and its functionality is tested to ensure it can still operate efficiently.
Got questions on power adapter tests? We are always here to help, just ask!

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How can GTG assist you with the certifications or markings for power adapters?

Power adapter certification is the process of verifying that the adapter meets the required safety and performance standards. Certification is conducted by accredited certification bodies such as UL and CE. Once the adapter has been certified, it can be sold in the market and is considered safe and reliable for use.

GTG Group is a globally recognized certification body that provides certification services for various industries. We offer a wide range of certification services, including safety, quality, and environmental certifications and ensure that it meets the regulatory standards. We have a team of experts who are knowledgeable in different industries and can provide customized solutions based on your needs and ensure that the certification process is smooth and hassle-free.

As GTG Group’s strategy updates, some of the below listed certifications or markings may no longer be available, please contact us for the latest information.

(1) IEC standards

The IEC is an international organization that develops and publishes international standards for electronic devices. The IEC has developed several standards for power adapters such as IEC 60950-1, which is the general safety standard for electronic devices, and IEC 62368-1, which is the safety standard for audio and video equipment.

(2) UL standards

UL is a global safety certification company that provides safety testing and certification services for electronic devices. UL has developed several standards for power adapters such as UL 60950-1, which is the general safety standard for electronic devices, and UL 62368-1, which is the safety standard for audio and video equipment.

(3) CE marking

CE marking is a certification mark that indicates that the adapter complies with the European Union (EU) health, safety, and environmental protection standards. The CE marking is mandatory for products sold in the EU market.

(4) FCC Certification

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is a regulatory body in the US that is responsible for regulating electronic devices. FCC certification is required for electronic devices that emit electromagnetic radiation such as power adapters. FCC certification ensures that the adapter does not interfere with other electronic devices.

(5) Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency is an important parameter in power adapters. Energy-efficient adapters consume less power and help to reduce energy costs and carbon emissions. The US Department of Energy has developed energy efficiency standards for external power supplies, which include power adapters.

Certifications such as Energy Star and EPEAT (Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool) evaluate adapters based on their energy efficiency and environmental impact. Adapters meeting these certifications consume less energy during operation, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and saving money on electricity bills.

(6) RoHS compliance

RoHS stands for Restriction of Hazardous Substances and is a directive that prohibits the use of certain hazardous materials in electronic devices. RoHS compliance is mandatory for electronic devices sold in the EU market.

(7) Compatibility and interoperability

Power adapters need to be compatible with a wide range of devices, including smartphones, laptops, gaming consoles, and more. Certification programs like USB-IF (USB Implementers Forum) ensure that USB (Universal Serial Bus) adapters meet strict requirements for voltage levels, current limits, and data transfer rates. This ensures seamless compatibility and interoperability across various devices.

It’s important to note that certification requirements may vary depending on the specific application and intended use of the power adapter. It’s advisable to consult with relevant regulatory authorities or seek guidance from a professional to ensure compliance with local regulations.

For more detailed and up-to-date information on power adapter testing and certification, we recommend visiting the official websites of the respective certification organizations or contacting them directly, or contact a GTG power adaptor expert for instant help.

Got questions on power adapter certification? We are always here to help, just ask!

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How does certification on power adapter benefit manufacturers?

Certification on power adapter benefits manufacturers by:

  • Enhancing the credibility of the product
  • Meeting the regulatory requirements
  • Improving customer trust and loyalty
  • Reducing the risk of product recalls and liability issues
  • Increasing marketability and sales

Why the biggest brands trust GTG Group?

GTG Group (Global Testing Group) is a certification company that offers testing and certification services to different industries. Our expertise in power adapters testing and certification has made us a trusted name in the industry.

(1) Independent and impartial testing

GTG Group is a third-party testing company, which means we are not affiliated with any specific manufacturer. This impartiality can provide camera manufacturers and consumers with confidence in the accuracy and reliability of the testing process, and ensure that the camera meets the required standards.

(2) Confidentiality and security

GTG Group understands the importance of confidentiality and security when it comes to testing and certification. We ensure that our clients’ data and information are kept confidential and secure at all times. This ensures that our clients’ intellectual property and trade secrets are protected.

(3) Testing capabilities

GTG Group has been providing testing services for over 10 years and has developed a reputation for being able to test a wide range of products. We have an extensive range of testing equipment which allows us to test adapters from almost any manufacturer.

(4) Testing standards

There are numerous testing standards that adapters must meet to ensure they are safe and reliable. GTG Group adheres to these standards and can test adapters to ensure we meet the required safety and performance criteria.

(5) Compatibility testing

In addition to safety and performance testing, GTG Group can also conduct compatibility testing to ensure that the adapter is compatible with the device it is intended for. This testing is crucial as using an incompatible adapter can damage the device or cause it to malfunction.

(6) Custom testing

GTG Group can also provide custom testing services to meet specific requirements. This can include testing adapters for specific industries, such as medical or aerospace, where additional safety standards are required.

(7) International testing

GTG Group’s testing capabilities are not limited to the United States – we can provide testing services for adapters from all over the world. This is crucial for companies that manufacture or import adapters from different countries.

(8) Quick turnaround time

GTG Group understands that time is of the essence when it comes to testing adapters. We offer quick turnaround times, which means that companies can get their products to market faster.

(9) Customer support

GTG Group provides excellent customer support and is always available to answer any questions or concerns that their clients may have. We work closely with their clients to ensure that they receive the best possible testing services.

(10) Quality assurance

GTG Group has a strict quality assurance process in place to ensure that our testing services are of the highest quality. This includes regular calibration of their testing equipment, as well as ongoing training for their staff.

FAQ on power adapter testing and certification

How long does it take to get the results of the tests?

The time it takes to get the results of the tests depends on the type of test and the complexity of the product. However, GTG Group strives to provide fast and efficient services, and the results are usually available within a few weeks.

Can GTG Group test adapters from any manufacturer?

Yes, GTG Group can test adapters from any manufacturer. Adapters from different manufacturers can vary greatly in terms of their design, voltage, and current output. GTG Group’s testing capabilities allow us to test adapters from different manufacturers and ensure that they meet the required standards.

Is it expensive to work with GTG Group for testing power adapters?

GTG Group’s testing services are cost-effective and is a small price to pay for the safety of your device, which makes GTG Group an ideal choice for companies that need to test a large number of adapters. Our testing equipment is state-of-the-art, which allows us to provide accurate and reliable results.

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What happens if the adapter fails the test?

If the adapter fails the test, GTG Group will provide a detailed report specifying the issues. The manufacturer can then rectify the issues and resubmit the product for testing.

Can individuals work with GTG Group for testing power adapters?

Yes, individuals can work with GTG Group for testing power adapters. It is especially useful for people who sell adapters or those who want to ensure the safety of their devices.

What other products can GTG Group test?

GTG Group can test a wide range of products, including electronic devices, appliances, and toys. We have expertise in various fields and can provide certification for various products.

Can you recommend any eco-friendly power adapter manufacturers?

The market is flooded with counterfeit and non-compliant power adapters, often sold at lower prices. These products pose significant risks, as they may lack proper insulation, overheat, or fail to deliver the required power levels. It is crucial to purchase power adapters from reputable manufacturers and retailers to avoid potential safety hazards.

Some well-known manufacturers with a focus on eco-friendly practices include Apple, Dell, HP, and Lenovo. These companies often provide information about their sustainability efforts on their websites.

Testing and certification are essential to guarantee that these adapters meet specific safety requirements, minimize the risk of electrical hazards, and optimize energy efficiency. Contact GTG Group today for power adapter testing and certification to avoid any legal issues that may arise from using a faulty adapter.

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